The first line of Nord Stream also known as Nord Stream 1  was laid by May and was inaugurated on 8 November Nord Stream projects have been opposed by the United States as well as several Central and Eastern European countries because of concerns that it would increase Russia's influence in the region. The U. Congress economic incentive to resist the Russian supply of gas to the EU, in favour of U.
The name "Nord Stream" occasionally refers to a wider pipeline network, including the feeding onshore pipeline in the Russian Federation, and further connections in Western Europe. The original pipeline project started in when Gazprom and the Finnish oil company Neste in merged with Imatran Voima to form Fortumwhich in separated again into Fortum and Neste formed the joint company North Transgas Oy for construction and operation of a gas pipeline from Russia to Northern Germany across the Baltic Sea.
ONwhich was split still later into E. ON and Uniper. A route survey in the Exclusive Economic Zones of FinlandSweden, Denmark and Germany, and a feasibility study of the pipeline was conducted in Several routes were considered including routes with onshore segments through Finland and Sweden. On 24 AprilGazprom, Fortum, Ruhrgas and Wintershall adopted a statement regarding a joint feasibility study for construction of the pipeline.
As a result, Gazprom became the only shareholder of North Transgas Oy.
On 9 DecemberGazprom started construction of the Russian onshore feeding pipeline Gryazovets—Vyborg gas pipeline in the town of Babayevo in Vologda Oblast. The agreement to take Gasunie to the consortium as the fourth partner, was signed on 6 November On 20 OctoberNord Stream received a construction permit to build the pipeline in the Danish waters.Russia: See Nord Stream 2 pipe-laying in Baltic waters
On 15 January construction of the Portovaya compressor station in Vyborg near the Gulf of Finland began. In addition to Castoro Seialso Castoro 10 and Solitaire were contracted for pipe-laying works. The laying of the first line was completed on 4 May the last pipe put in placewhile all underwater works on the first line were completed on 21 June In AugustNord Stream AG applied to the Finnish and Estonian governments for route studies in their underwater exclusive economic zones for the third and fourth lines.
In Januaryit was announced that the expansion project was put on hold since the existing lines were running at only half capacity due to EU restrictions on Gazprom. On 31 JanuaryGermany granted Nord Stream 2 a permit for construction and operation in German waters and landfall areas near Lubmin. In Januarythe US ambassador in Germany, Richard Grenellsent letters to companies involved in the construction of Nord Stream 2 urging them to stop working on the project and threatening with the possibility of sanctions.
On 21 DecemberAllseas announced that the company had suspended its Nord Stream 2 pipelay activities, anticipating enactment of the U. These sanctions were soon imposed. In JanuaryRussian president Putin said he expected work on Nord Stream 2 to be completed "by the end of this year, or in the first quarter of next year". German chancellor Merkel said she "does not agree with the US approach" of sanctions. In Maythe German energy regulator refused an exception from competition rules that require Nord Stream 2 to separate gas ownership from transmission.
In AugustPoland fined Gazprom 50 million euro due to the latter's lack of cooperation with an investigation by UOKiK, the Polish anti-monopoly watchdog. This comes after the watchdog launched a probe under competition rules against Gazprom and five other companies that are financing the pipeline project, suspecting that they have continued to work on the pipeline without permission from the government of Poland.
At that time km remained to be constructed, all within Danish waters. Nord Stream is fed by the Gryazovets—Vyborg gas pipeline. It is a part of the integrated gas transport network of Russia connecting existing grid in Gryazovets with the coastal compressor station at Vyborg.London CNN Business The future of a nearly complete gas pipeline that promises to strengthen Russia's grip on Europe's energy supply has been thrown into doubt following the poisoning of opposition leader Alexey Navalny.
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The German government has not ruled out consequences for the Nord Stream 2 pipeline as it moves to press the Kremlin for information about the poisoning, but analysts say that such a move would face multiple legal challenges and threaten Europe's cheapest supply of gas. Navalny is being treated in a Berlin hospital after being flown there from the Siberian city of Omsk.
Restricting supply would raise prices for consumers across the European Union, experts say. The European Union has been here before. The bloc pledged to cut its dependence on Russian gas after Moscow annexed part of Ukraine inbut imports increased between and before falling slightly last year.
Germany still imports more than half its natural gas from Russia, which is also the leading supplier of crude oil and coal to the European Union.
Who's standing up to Russia on Navalny poisoning? Not America. Russia has the largest natural gas reserves in the world and is the world's biggest gas exporter. The primary purpose of Nord Stream 2, which connects Russia to Germany via the Baltic Sea, is to reduce the reliance on transit routes through Ukraine, which have been increasingly difficult to negotiate due to the armed conflict in that country.
Read More. The new Baltic pipeline will have the capacity to meet about one third of the European Union's future gas import requirements, according to the Nord Stream 2 website. Russian state-controlled gas giant Gazprom is the project's sole shareholder.The pipeline will make landfall on the northern German coast near Greifswald.
Construction along the kilometre German section of the pipeline is divided into onshore and offshore sections. In Germany, this was done in the first section of the pipeline in the Bay of Greifswald. The preferred technique to do this is the pre-lay excavation of a trench. By taking construction underground, this method ensures that sensitive areas and existing infrastructure remain unaffected.
It takes over 11 hours and several experienced drivers to deliver each trainload of pipes to Mukran in perfect condition. In the onshore section, the pipeline inspection gauge PIG receiving station is being built to the west of the port of Lubmin. The approximately six-hectare site will contain all the necessary control and regulation equipment for the safe operation of the twin pipeline. Two metre microtunnels will make the transition from the onshore to the underwater construction sections.
The tunnels, which were built in the second quarter ofstart in front of the PIG receiving station, pass under the infrastructure to the north railway track, road and supply lines as well as coastal forest, dune and beach to end in the shallow water area approximately metres beyond the beach.
In the summer of both pipelines were drawn in via the tunnels to the PIG receiving station. Before this work began, the trench area for both pipelines was prepared in mid-May In total, an approximately kilometre trench will be dug in German coastal waters for the two pipelines, as well as two parallel trenches approximately kilometres long for each pipeline. After the pipe has been laid, the trenches will be refilled and the top layer restored with the material previously removed.
This accelerates regeneration and ensures that the effects of the intervention remains local and limited in time, with the lowest impact possible. All work is overseen with extensive environmental monitoring to ensure that the predicted effects of construction outlined in the approved permit application documents are not exceeded. These effects include factors like water turbidity and noise, for example.
Construction in Germany The pipeline will make landfall on the northern German coast near Greifswald. Back to overview. Related Documents.
The wait may be long, as the Agency had already delayed the project in the past when it took its time to make a previous decision. The court case may take place while the gas pipeline is allowed to operate, or not. This remains to be seen. This is a hard nut to crack for Gazprom and a conflict between Russian and EU law. Russia granted Gazprom legal exclusivity over gas exports via gas pipelines, including Nord Stream 2, so it does not offer access to its pipelines to third parties.
This goes against ownership unbundling required by the EU law. Since Nord Stream 2 AG has a full share ownership it is not allowed to be the operator, but it remains to be seen whether this role could be played by a daughter company of the giant from Petersburg, which would hold a minority share. Probably Russia would also have to change the law to allow other companies access to Nord Stream 2. Trading Russian gas on the exchange is such an interesting solution that Alexander Lukashenko used it as an argument during his negotiations on lowering gas prices for Belarus.
The European Commission will allow deliveries via the pipe only after the implementation of the law is approved by Bundesnetzagentur. However, before this happens a number of unexpected events may occur. One of them could be an internal conflict within the EC, similar to the one that led to a decision deadlock in Marchwhen directorates-general issued contradictory legal opinions. Therefore, a lot of scenarios are on the table and BiznesAlert.
By the way, the sword of Damocles is still hanging over the project as the US may implement new sanctions. American politicians claim they will not allow the construction of the pipe to be finished by the Akademik Cherskiy ship, which is getting ready to work on the Baltic Sea. Bundesnetzagentur energy gas directive Germany Nord Stream 2. See also. Nord Stream 2 will not be excluded from the Gas Directive.
GAS Nord Stream 2. Bundesnetzagentur, the German energy regulator, has announced that Nord Stream 2 will not be excluded from the EU gas directive. Related posts: […]. Will Nord Stream 2 succumb to the coronavirus? The German daily Handelsblatt has published bombshell news that may decide about the future of Nord Steam 2.
If it is confirmed, the gas pipeline […]. Detente supports Nord Stream 2.
If you continue to use this site we will assume that you are happy with it.The Higher Administrative Court of Berlin-Brandenburg has ruled that the construction of Nord Stream 2 pipeline project could continue, rejecting a complaint over a plot of land through which the pipeline should pass and finally clearing the path for the German-Russian project.
A strip of land in the small town of Oderberg which is 38 metres wide almost prevented the construction of the Nord Stream 2 natural gas pipeline. But on Thursday night, the Higher Administrative Court of Berlin-Brandenburg rejected the claim of landowner and journalist Malte Heynen, which finally cleared the way for the project.
The reason for the lawsuit was an environmental impact assessment of the EUGAL pipeline, which Heynen believed to be incomplete. The pipeline is the land-extension of Nord Stream 2, which should transport Russian gas coming from the Baltic Sea over a distance of kilometres from Lubmin in northern Germany to the Czech Republic.
Germany on Thursday 12 December warned Washington to mind its own business after US lawmakers gave initial approval to a bill that would sanction contractors working on a Russian pipeline to Germany. In court, Heynen complained that the authority had carried out the required environmental impact assessment but had not addressed the potential environmental impact of greenhouse gases that could escape through the extraction and transport of natural gas. However, the judges ruled yesterday 12 March that such calculations were not a necessary part of the environmental assessment.
According to them, the pipeline is state of the art and therefore safe, and the amount of escaping gases is minimal. In order to assess if there was even enough demand for gas to justify the construction of another pipeline, the Office had relied solely on the information provided by the project operators and did not request independent assessments, according to Heynen.
In its defence, the authority pointed out that it had relied on the much more moderate of the two demand scenarios. However, according to Heynen, even this would assume unrealistic factors. Deutsche Umwelthilfe, an environmental NGO, believes it is highly questionable whether the gas consumption they calculated will actually occur.
Nevertheless, the energy-economic evaluation of EUGAL did not demonstrate any deficiencies in terms of legality or assessment, the Higher Administrative Court said. The German government insists on importing Russian gas to cushion its nuclear and coal phase-out. But as the Netherlands has announced the phase-out of natural gas production byGermany will be even more dependent on Russian gas in the future, the economy ministry has said. Renewable energies and storage technologies, better efficiency and electrically produced gases would tend to reduce the demand for natural gas in the future.
At the EU level, there had been strong resistance to the German-Russian project. The Russians have sent their only pipe-laying vessel equipped with dynamic positioning system — Akademik Cherskiy — to Europe. But can the tiny ship without previous experience in pipe-laying do the job, Mateusz Kubiak ponders. Nord Stream 2 has already been the subject of several lawsuits in Germany. The German non-profit dedicated to nature conservation known as Naturschutzbund Deutschland NABU had filed a complaint on environmental grounds with the Greifswald Higher Administrative Court and the Federal Constitutional Court in Karlsruhe, but lost both proceedings.
Russian gas should thus be flowing by at the latest. We need your support. Dear reader. Now more than ever we need unbiased, expert information on how and why the European Union functions. This information should not be behind a paywall, and we remain committed to providing our content for free.
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Will Russia apply EU law to Nord Stream 2 after its failed attempt at derogation ?
And we thank you for your support. Your recurring monthly financial contributions help us innovate for the future.The pipeline makes landfall at the northern German coastal town of Lubmin, near Greifswald.
Using this method greatly minimised the environmental impact of the construction works. The landfall facilities built west of the port of Lubmin include the Pipeline Inspection Gauge PIG receiving station, in addition to control and regulation equipment for the safe operation of the pipeline. Each time, previously laid pipeline ends opposite from each other will be raised above the water, welded together, tested for quality and then returned to the seafloor.
By taking construction underground, this method ensures that sensitive areas and existing infrastructure remain unaffected. In Germany, this was done in the first section of the pipeline in the Bay of Greifswald.
The preferred technique to do this is the pre-lay excavation of a trench. This animation illustrates each step.
Why Europe still can't take risks with its supply of Russian gas
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